Evaluation of environmental seismic intensities of all known historical and recent earthquakes felt in Zakynthos Island, Greece using the Environmental Seismic Intensity (ESI 2007) scale.
The complete and detailed knowledge of the historical earthquakes, the past earthquake environmental effects (EEE) and the respective seismic intensities has become significant in recent years due to the fact that among others it serves as a valuable tool for revealing and highlighting sites of significant earthquake-related hazards. Many efforts have been made to record the EEE of individual recent earthquakes and evaluate their seismic intensity based on the Environmental Seismic Intensity 2007 scale (ESI 2007) in Greece and around the world. But fewer studies have focused on the complete seismic history including historical and recent earthquakes of an area and the respective intensities based on the induced EEE. The Central Ionian Islands (Western Greece) and especially Zakynthos Island are considered appropriate for the development of this approach. The complete history of earthquakes with destructive impact on Zakynthos from 1513 to present is presented. Emphasis is given on EEE, while the respective ESI 2007 intensities are assigned. Based on the EEE's distribution on the affected fault blocks, it is concluded that eastern Zakynthos has been affected more often and severely by earthquakes. This selective distribution is attributed to the neotectonic setting of Zakynthos. The recording of the EEE over the past five centuries and the study of possible correlation with the seismotectonic structure of the affected area could be used as a basic guide for the reduction of the future seismic risk and the risk from EEE through effective land-use planning and preparedness in earthquake-prone areas.